Monday, December 21, 2015

Proof Dinosaurs & Humans co-existed

taken from - Dinosaurs - Dinosaurs In History
Cryptozoology - C vs E - Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs In History
The Evidence Left Behind

...while you read
The dragon . . . one of the principle and most powerful, prevalent symbols of history as we know it. How could such reverential, awe-inspiring creatures of man's simple imagination have such an impact upon almost every civilization of the past? Could it be, just perhaps, that what countless numbers of people have written about through the course of time could have been actual, living animals? To some this seems absurd, but when all the facts and truths are put together, much more than myth and legend are revealed.


To test this assertion, we will now examine the issue by considering the written evidence that has survived from the records of various ancient peoples that describe, sometimes in most graphic detail, human encounters with living giant reptiles that we today would call dinosaurs. And as we shall see, some of those records are not so ancient.

First, however, let's briefly look at the common "dragon knowledge" we read from our history books. The ancient Norsemen adorned the prows of their vessels with carved likenesses of dragons. Among the Celtic conquerors of Britain the dragon was a symbol of sovereignty. Dragons were also depicted on the shields of the Teutonic tribes that later invaded Britain, and it appeared on the battle standards of the English kings as late as the 16th century. Beginning in the early 20th century, it was inscribed on the armorial bearings of the Prince of Wales.

The dragon also figures in the mythology of various Oriental countries, notably Japan and China. It is deified in the Daoist (Taoist) religion and was the national emblem of the Chinese Empire. Among the Chinese people, the dragon is traditionally regarded as a symbol of good fortune.[1]

More than myths and legends, however, we find a numerous amount of accurate historical accounts of "dinosaur-like" dragons from all around the world.

Following from source [2]


The city of Nerluc was renamed in honor of the killing of a "dragon" there. This animal was bigger than an ox and had long, sharp, pointed horns on its head. There were a number of different horned dinosaurs. The Triceratops is one example.



A scientist named Ulysses Aldrovandus carefully described a small "dragon" seen along a farm road in northern Italy. The date was May 13, 1572. The poor, rare creature was so small that a farmer killed it just by knocking it on the head with his walking stick.

The animal had done nothing wrong but hiss at the farmer's oxen as they approached it on the road. The scientist got the dead body and made measurements and a drawing. He even had the animal mounted for a museum. It had a long neck, a very long tail and a fat body.

The skeletons of a number of ancient reptile-like creatures match this basic description.



Thousands of dragon stories and pictures can be found in ancient Chinese books and art. One interesting legend tells about a famous Chinese man named Yu. After the great world flood, Yu surveyed the land of China and divided it into sections. He "built channels to drain the water off to the sea" and helped make the land livable again. Many snakes and "dragons" were driven from the marshlands when Yu created the new farmlands.

Ancient Chinese books even tell of a family that kept "dragons" and raised babies. It is said that in those days, Chinese kings used "dragons" for pulling royal chariots on special occasions, a fact of which famous explorer Marco Polo himself attested to.



Over the years of time, truth can often become distorted; events are exaggerated, facts are made more exciting. This, we believe, is the case with dinosaurs and dragons. Today we think of them as magical, mystical, fictitious beings, but as any historian will tell you, almost all legends and myths are based on true, actual facts and events. A fire-breathing dragon? Is it possible? Scientists still are puzzled by hollow naval cavities found in the skulls of many dinosaur specimens found today. They seem to serve no purpose. Or did they?

Delve into this exciting topic. We ask the skeptic to read, observe the evidence, and keep an open mind. History, we hope, will never be the same.

Putting Two and Two Together...

If one was to conduct a questionnaire, a questionnaire putting forth one simple question, given to people of average intelligence, a result would entail revealing an astounding "hidden knowledge" inherent in us human beings. It would be as follows:

"What historical animal, real or fictitious, do we have more stories about being killed because of its threat to people?"

It might take a brief minute of thinking, but the majority would unquestionably reply "A dragon." Why? Why do we have so many legends, accounts, and fire-side tales of these large, ferocious, reptilian creatures? . . . and why, to step further, are they all acquainted with death? Why is there always a knight, noble, king, or peasant, sent by the people to slay the dragon? And why, we must honestly ask ourselves, do dragons possess so many similarities to what we today know as dinosaurs?

Let us begin with the first question. As every historian will tell you, historical legends are all based on some amount of fact, i.e. King Arthur, Robin Hood, Gilgamesh, etc. More then just your common stories, legends do in fact open the door in allowing us to, in a sense, go back in time. We can ponder the truths given in the legend of St. George and his encounter with a reptilian animal. While some dragon legends possess exaggerations, magic and marvelous deeds, the account of St. George is free from any of this.

However, when one finds actual accounts, accounts written as if one was writing about an encounter with a lion or bear of today, the notion that dinosaurs were only animals of "pre-historic times" becomes absurd.

British Isles - Anglo-Saxon Records [3]

One account takes us back to the days of the early Britons, from whom the modern Welsh are descended. They provide us with our earliest surviving European accounts of reptilian monsters, one of whom killed and devoured King Morvidus in 336 B.C. We are told in the amazing account, translated for us by Geoffrey of Monmouth, that the monster "gulped down the body of Morvidus as a big fish swallows a little one." Geoffrey himself described the animal as a Belua. The Belua was described as reptilian, and when we endeavor to compare it with any other animal of today, coupled with the fact that it gulped down Morvidus "as a big fish swallows a little one," we find it difficult in doing so. No land animal of today, let alone reptilian, could devour a human by such standards. Therefore, Geoffrey was either a flat out liar, or he told the truth.

In the British Isles alone there are approximately 200 locations in which dinosaur activity has been reported. Going into the future to the year 1405, we now visit Bures in Soffolk, where a chronicle reveals to us the physical reality of yet another dinosaur:

"Close to the town of Bures, near Sudbury, there has lately appeared, to the great hurt of the countryside, a dragon, vast in body, with a crested head, teeth like a saw, and a tail extending to an enormous length. Having slaughtered the shepherd of a flock, it devoured many sheep."

After an unsuccessful attempt by local archers to kill the beast, due to its impenetrable hide:

" order to destroy him, all the country people around were summoned. But when the dragon saw that he was again to be assailed with arrows, he fled into a marsh or mere and there hid himself among the long reeds, and was no more seen."

As you continue to read, you may perhaps think to yourself, "Why aren't these chronicles from history more well known? Why have I not heard or read about these things before?" Sadly, most historians throw aside these accounts, simply because the word "dragon" is used. As the term "dinosaur" wasn't invented until the 1800s, to do so is foolish and a detriment to history itself.

In the 15th century, according to a contemporary chronicle that still survives in Canterbury Cathedral's library, the following incident was reported. On the afternoon of Friday, September 26, 1449, two giant reptiles were seen fighting on the banks of the River Stour (near the village of Little Cornard) which marked the English county borders of Suffolk and Essex. One was black, and the other "reddish and spotted". After an hour-long struggle that took place "to the admiration of many beholding them", the black monster yielded and returned to its lair, the scene of the conflict being known ever since as Sharpfight Meadow.

As late as August, 1614, the following sober account was given of a strange reptile that was encountered in St. Leonard's Forest in Sussex.

The sighting was near a village that was known as 'Dragon's Green' long before this report was published. Original writing has been kept for authenticity:

"This serpent is reputed to be nine feete, or rather more, in length, and shaped almost in the form of an axletree of a cart: a quantite of thickness in the middest, and somewhat smaller at both endes. The former part, which he shootes forth as a necke, is supposed to be an elle long (3 ft. 9 inch); with a white ring, as it were, of scales about it. The scales along his back seem to be blackish, and so much as is discovered under his bellie, appeareth to be red . . . it is likewise discovered to have large feete, but the eye may there be deceived, for some suppose that serpents have no feete . . . (The dragon) rids away as fast as a man can run. His food (rabbits) is thought to be, for the most part, in a conie-warren, which he much frequents . . . There are likewise upon either side of him discovered two great bunches so big as a large foote-ball, and (as some thinke) will in time grow to wings, but God, I hope, will (to defend the poor people in the neighbourhood) that he shall be destroyed before he grows to fledge."

This dragon was reportedly seen in various places within a circuit of three or four miles, and the pamphlet named some of the still-living witnesses who had seen him. These included as follows: John Steele, Christopher Holder, and a certain "widow woman dwelling neare Faygate". Another witness was "the carrier of Horsham, who lieth at the White Horse (inn) in Southwark". One of the locals set his two mastiffs onto the monster, and apart from losing his dogs, he was fortunate to escape with his own life, for the dragon was already credited with the deaths of a man and woman at whom it had spat and how consequently had been killed by its venom. When approached unwittingly, our pamphleteer tells us the monster was:

"...of countenance very proud and at the sight or hearing of men or cattel will raise his neck upright and seem to listen and looke about, with great arrogancy."

Fascinating . . . a true eyewitness account of typically reptilian behavior.

Going ahead to the year 1867, less than 200 years ago (2 years after the American Civil War), the monster that lived in the woods around Fittleworth in Sussex was last seen. It would reportedly run up to people hissing and spitting if they happened to stumble across it unawares, although it never harmed anyone. Several such cases could be cited, but suffice it to say that too many incidents like these are reported down through the centuries and from all sorts of locations for us to say that they are all fairy-tales.


Let us stop for a moment to consider an interesting and historically repeated fact. Some of these reptilian monsters, as reported here twice, are said to have spit at their enemies. Not only that, their saliva was said to be lethal. Being acquainted with Hollywood, one immediately thinks back upon the blockbuster hit, Jurassic Park, in which a Dilophosaurus spits at and kills a main character. Amazingly, the description given in the 1405 account seems to accurately portray a living Dilophosaurus, as shown right. Again, the animal was "vast in body, with a crested head, teeth like a saw, and a tail extending to an enormous length."


What distinguishes itself the most among these descriptions is the "crested head." The name Dilophosaurus means "two-crested lizard." It was given this name for the two ridges, or crests, of very thin bone, that ran side by side on its head, from behind the eyes to the tip of the nose.

"Vast in body..."

The Dilophosaurus could grow to a length of 20 feet (6 meters), and was extremely thick.

"Teeth like a saw..."

The Dilophosaurus is notorious in the scientific community for its razor sharp teeth. It also possessed three-fingered hands attached with sharp-claws. From the look of its skeleton, it appeared to be an extremely fierce hunter.

One other note of interest are the crests of this particular dinosaur. The bone is as thin as paper, making it an obviously delicate (and vulnerable) part of its body. A typical question you may find when reading about a Dilophosaurus is, "Could it have attacked and fought other large dinosaurs without damaging its delicate crest? Or did it prey only on small creatures?" Believing that a few species of this animal were still alive only a few hundred years ago, the logical conclusion to this question would be the latter question . . . small creatures.

The following is a list of locations throughout Britain where dinosaur activity has been historically reported:

Aller, Somerset; Anwick, Lincolnshire; Bamburgh, Nothumberland; Beckhole, North Yorkshire; Bedd-yr-Afranc, Wales; Ben Vair, Scotland; Bignor Hill, West Sussex; Bishop Auckland, Durham; Bisterne, Hampshire; Brent Pelham, Hertfordshire; Brinsop, Hereford and Worcester; Bures, Suffolk; Cadbury Castle, Devon; Carhampton, Somerset; Castle Carlton, Lincolnshire; Castle Neroche, Somerset; Challacombe, Devon; Churchstanton, Somerset; Cnoc-na-Cnoimh, Scotland; Crowcombe, Somerset; Dalry, Scotland; Deerhurst, Gloucestershire; Dol-y-Carrog, Wales; Dragonhoard, Oxfordshire; Drake Howe, North Yorkshire; Drakelow, Derbyshire; Drakelowe, Worcestershire; Filey Brigg, North Yorkshire; Handale Priory, North Yorkshire; Henham, Essex; Hornden, Essex; Kellington, North Yorkshire; Kilve, Somerset; Kingston St. Mary, Somerset; Lambton Castle, Durham; Linton, Scotland; Little Cornard, Suffolk; Llandeilo Graban, Wales; Llanraeadr-ym-Mochnant, Wales; Llyn Barfog, Wales; Llyn Cynwch, Wales; Llyn Llion, Wales; Llyn-y-Gader, Wales; Llyn-yr-Afanc, Wales; Loch Awe, Scotland; Loch Maree, Scotland; Loch Morar, Scotland; Loch Ness, Scotland; Loch Rannoch, Scotland; Longwitton, Northumberland; Ludham, Norfolk; Lyminster, West Sussex; Manaton, Devon; Money Hill, Northumberland; Moston, Cheshire; Newcastle Emlyn, Wales; Norton Fitzwarren, Hereford and Worcester; Nunnington, North Yorkshire; Old Field Barrows, Shropshire; Penllin Castle, Wales; Penmark, Wales; Penmynydd, Wales; St. Albans, Hertfordshire; St. Leonard's Forest, West Sussex; St. Osyth, Essex; Saffron Waldon, Essex; Sexhow, North Yorkshire; Shervage Wood, Hereford and Worcester; Slingsby, North Yorkshire; Sockburn, Durham; Stinchcombe, Gloucestershire; Strathmartin, Scotland; Walmsgate, Lincolnshire; Wantley, South Yorkshire; Well, North Yorkshire; Wherwell, Hampshire; Whitehorse Hill, Oxfordshire; Winkleigh, Devon; Wiston, Wales; Wormelow Tump, Hereford and Worcester; Wormingford, Essex.

What Our Ancestors Have Left Behind...

The arguments against dinosaurs existing in recent history become more and more desperate as the truth unfolds. The next weapon the skeptic often unsheathes is a question, unfortunately, many individuals have a hard time answering:

"What painting, drawings, or carvings do we find of living dinosaurs? Animals of all kinds have been artistically portrayed all throughout history, so why not dinosaurs?"

Sadly, only ignorance cannot give an ample answer to this question. Take, for instance, the Roman mosaic shown to the right. Dated around the 2nd century A.D., this piece of artwork portrays two large, long-necked animals. No fanciful wings, no multiple heads, no magical, mythical characteristics . . . simply two large creatures that the artist took his time to portray. Trusting that the animals were based upon first-hand experience, and taking into account that the artist deliberately placed them by the sea, it would appear that these were a species of Tanystropheus, an aquatic, webbed dinosaur.[2]


We now move on to a phenomenon which occurred almost 40 years ago. Known as the Ica Stones of Peru, they first came to the attention of the scientific community in 1966 when Dr. Javier Cabrera, a local physician, received a small, carved rock for his birthday from a poor native. The carving on the rock looked ancient to Dr. Cabrera, but intrigued him because it seemed to depict a primitive fish. Hearing that the doctor was interested in the stone, local natives began to bring him more, which they collected from a river bank. This soon developed into a vast collection of more than 50,000 stones, many etched with seemingly impossible scenes. Whereas it might be difficult to prove that the fish represented a long-extinct species, as Dr. Cabrera thought, other scenes carved on other stones are not so ambiguous. They clearly depict such dinosaurs as triceratops, stegosaurus, apatosaurus, and human figures riding on the backs of flying pterodactyls. What’s more, some of the scenes are of men hunting and killing dinosaurs. Others show men watching the heavens through what look like telescopes, performing open-heart surgery, and cesarean section births.

As many ancient civilizations were more advanced then previously thought, telescopes and performed surgeries should not come as a surprise. However, to see dinosaurs etched on these stones does come as a surprise (to many). Again, in all, more than 50,000 stones discovered, varying in size from that of a baseball to as large as a sofa. As a first thought, the mere large number of them indicates that they are indeed genuine 'relics.' However, more proof is needed, and of that, such proof exists.

The stones themselves are composed of andesite, a very hard mineral that would make etching quite difficult with primitive tools. They are covered with a natural varnish that is created by bacteria over thousands of years. The etching is made by scraping away this dark varnish to reveal the lighter mineral beneath. According to some reports, examinations of the stones show that the grooves of the etchings also bear traces of additional varnish, however, indicating that they are very old.

Ica natives had, in fact, been selling such stones to the tourist trade. Interestingly, the natives of the area can still be seen today making etchings on stones in the style of the Ica Stones to sell to tourists. However, the distinction between their product and the “genuine” stones is that the newly etched stones clearly scrape away all of the varnish. In essence, the present-day Ica's cannot make them like the ones found years ago. This, of course, is a very significant fact.


At a museum in Manitou Springs, Colorado, exists an artifact on display that has raised more questions than anything else ever discovered in the area; An Indian prayer stick, roughly a foot long, with a crested head, eyes on both sides, and a mouth. When looked upon by anyone acquainted with "prehistoric reptiles," whether it be the common 4-year old to the respected paleontologist, its identity simply cannot, and will not, be ignored. The artistically and well-defined head of a Pterodactyl stands atop the stick, raising many questions of how they molded the head of a species long extinct, and why they did so. Many legends exist of large "reptilian birds" in the area, and this, as of now, appears to be the only realistic answer.


The portrayal from a Saxon shield discovered years ago reveals the same unmistakable creature. A flying reptile at rest, wings folded along its sides, a long beak, and that full of teeth. Comparison of this with a modern reconstruction of a Pterodactyl or similar animal is most instructive, especially when looking back into Anglo-Saxon history. As late as the beginning of the present century, elderly folk at Penllin in Glamorgan used to tell of a colony of winged serpents that lived in the woods around Penllin Castle. As Marie Trevelyan tells us:

"The woods around Penllin Castle, Glamorgan, had the reputation of being frequented by winged serpents, and these were the terror of old and young alike. An aged inhabitant of Penllyne, who died a few years ago, said that in his boyhood the winged serpents were described as very beautiful. They were coiled when in repose, and 'looked as if they were covered with jewels of all sorts. Some of them had crests sparkling with all the colours of the rainbow.' When disturbed they glided swiftly, 'sparkling all over', to their hiding places. When angry, they 'flew over people's heads, with outspread wings bright, and sometimes with eyes too, like the feathers in a peacock's tail'. He said it was 'no old story invented to frighten children', but a real fact. His father and uncle had killed some of them, for they were as bad as foxes for poultry. The old man attributed the extinction of the winged serpents to the fact that they were 'terrors in the farmyards and coverts'."[3]

This account is intriguing in many respects, not the least being the fact that it is not a typical account of dragons. The creatures concerned were not solitary and monstrous beasts, but small creatures that lived in colonies.


A stone can be seen inside the church of SS. Mary and Hardulph at Breedon-on-the-Hill in Leicestershire . . . a stone with very peculiar, graphic engravings; A portrayal from Saxon times of an attack on a herd of long-necked quadrupeds (four-legged) by a bipedal (two-legged) predator. Note the predator's two large legs and puny forelimbs. This portrayal conforms very closley indeed to the description of Grendel, and is a clear indication that such creatures were to be seen on the British mainland as well as the Continent, as is also shown by Athelstan's and other charters.[3]


In 1902, a group of scientists and workmen dug up part of the wall of a 2,500-year-old city. On that wall was a mystery.

The city was Babylon, which once stood on the banks of the Euphrates River in the Near East, in what is now the nation of Iraq. Babylon was once the capital of the kingdom of Babylonia, one of the world's greatest cities. It was a huge square of houses, temples, and palaces, surrounded by a high wall made of shiny, colored bricks. What scientists discovered and dug up was a part of the wall with a gateway. The gateway was decorated with sculptors of three kinds of animals, arranged in rows. One animal was a lion, while another was a bull. The third, however, was a strange creature such as none of the scientists had ever seen before.

The creature had a scaly body with a long tail and a long snakelike neck. A forked tongue, like the tongue of a snake, stuck out its mouth, and a long horn stuck up from its forehead. Its front legs looked much like the legs and feet of a cat. However, it had scaly back legs, along with clawed feet. Whatever animal this thing was, the portrayer certainly made it clear that it was a reptile. Interestingly, the artists had shown the muscles and skin and hair of the lion and bull so well that those animals looked almost real. And what they showed of this creature, too, looked almost real.

Surprising though it seems, even though the scientists had never seen this creature before, they knew what it was supposed to be, for the king, that is, King Nebuchadnezzar, had left writings that described the decoration. The writings, found and translated, revealed that Nebuchadnezzar had called the creature a Sirrush, which was the Babylonian word for Dragon.[4]

In some versions of the Bible, contained in the last few chapters of Daniel, the Sirrush is made mention of. In fact, it is the subject of a controversial situation. The Sirrush, or dragon, was kept in a temple in Babylon during the days of Nebuchadnezzar. This creature was worshipped as a god, and according to the story, the Hebrew prophet Daniel proved that the creature was not a god by feeding it poisoned food, which eventually killed it.

Whether or not we today regard the Sirrush as a living, breathing animal, King Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians did, and it perhaps would be wise for us to give them the benefit of the doubt.

Much more could be written about dinosaurs throughout the history of mankind, and such will be written. For now, consider not only the possibility of dinosaurs alongside man, but moreso, the distinct probability.


1. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2005 Reference Library Premium (DVD), article: ‘Dragon’.
2. The Great Dinosaur Mystery. Chariot Victor Publishing, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 80918. Paul S. Taylor. ©1987.
3. After The Flood. New Wine Press, PO Box 17, Chichester, West Sussex, PO20 6YB, England. Bill Cooper. 1995.
4. Childcraft Annual, Mysteries and Fantasies, World Book Inc., 'What Was the Sirrush of Babylon?', pp. 156-159. 1986.



Creation vs Evolution


St. George & The Dragon

Stone Dragons
Thai Temple

Detail of the Dragon Bridge
Ljubljana, Slovenia

Ancient Roman Mosaic
Two long-necked dragons by the sea. 2nd century A.D.

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Tuesday, November 17, 2015

Proof of the plagues on Egypt in Exodus

taken from:

There is an ancient Egyptian papyrus that some believe tells of the plagues that God sent on Egypt during Israel’s deliverance from that land under Moses. Oddly the ancient document hasn’t caught the attention of many believers simply because it doesn’t fit their time-table of who the Pharaoh of the Exodus actually was. Most believe the Exodus happened under Thutmose III or Ramses II, but this document puts it much earlier than these pharaohs. The document officially named Leiden I 344 is on display at the Dutch National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, Holland. It was discovered in 1828, but wasn’t translated until 1909, when Professor Alan Gardner discovered it was a lament speaking of a very chaotic time in Egypt’s history. He titled it The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage from a Hieratic Papyrus. It spoke of disasters, death, mysterious natural phenomena and  famine. And oddly it addressed a massive transfer of wealth from the very rich of Egyptian society to the poorest.

There are a number of elements in the Ipuwer papyrus that refers to plague of Exodus. I used a translation provided by Rabbi Mordechai Becher of OHR Somayach a Jewish Bible school.

River of blood (First plague)

  1. Bible: Exodus 7:20 refers to God turning the water of the Nile river into blood and the Egyptians being unable to drink the water and forced to dig wells looking for clean water (Exodus 7:24)
  2. Ipuwer papyrus:  “The river is blood. Men shrink from tasting — human beings, and thirst after water.” (Ipuwer 2:10)

Animals diseased  (Fifth plague)

  1. Bible: Exodus 9:3 records that God struck the cattle and all the animals of Egypt with a sickness.
  2. Ipuwer papyrus: “All the animals, their hearts weep. Cattle moan…” (Ipuwer 5:5). Then in 9:2-3 it reads, “Behold, cattle are left to stray, and there is none to gather them in.”

Human plague (Sixth plague)

  1. Bible: God judged Egypt with an infectious boil that broke out into open wounds. It not only struck people, but animals as well (Exodus 9:8-9).
  2. Ipuwer papyrus: “Plague is throughout the land. Blood is everywhere” (IP 2:5-6).

Massive hail and thunder-storm (Seventh plague)

  1. Bible: A massive hail storm destroyed the herbs (Exodus 9:24-25) and flax and barley crops which were close to harvest (Exodus 9:31-32)
  2. Ipuwer papyrus: It speaks of crop failure that affected the Egyptian revenues. “Lower Egypt weeps … The entire palace is without its revenues. To it belong wheat and barley, geese and fish” (IP 10:3-6).  It also reads, “Forsooth, grain has perished on every side” (IP 6:3). It also compares the weariness of the land to the “cutting of flax,” that would happen with a massive hail storm (IP 5:12).
Lightning and fire:
  1. The Bible: Associated with this massive storm was lightning that rolled along the ground. Fire was mixed with the hail (Exodus 9:23-24).
  2. Ipuwer papyrus: Speaks of damage due to fire. “Forsooth, gates, columns and walls are consumed by fire” (IP 2:10).

Darkness over the land (Ninth plague)

  1. Bible: Exodus 10:22 says that a great darkness covered the land for three days.
  2. Ipuwer papyrus: “The land is without light” (IP 9:11)

Death of the firstborn (Tenth plague)

  1. Bible: The last plague involved the killing of the first-born of every family, including the Pharaoh’s (Exodus 12:29-30). The Bible says a great cry was heard throughout Egypt  (Exodus 12:30).
  2. Ipuwer papyrus: “Forsooth, the children of the princes are dashed against the walls.” (IP 4:3, 5:6) “Forsooth, the children of princes are cast in the streets” (IP 6:12). “He who places his brother in the ground is everywhere” (IP 2:13) and “It is groaning through the land, mingled with lamentations” (IP 3:14).

Other unique references

Despite the obvious connection to the plagues of Egypt, the papyrus refers to two other incidents that in my estimation seal the deal.
It says:
“Gold and lapis Iazuli, silver, malachite, carnelian and bronze … are fastened on the neck of female slaves” (3:2)
This speaks of a massive transfer of wealth from the richest of Egyptian society to the poorest — the slaves.  This is exactly what the Bible says happened:
Now the sons of Israel had done according to the word of Moses, for they had requested from the Egyptians articles of silver and articles of gold, and clothing; 36 and the Lord had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have their request. Thus they plundered the Egyptians. (Exodus 12:35-36 NASV)
This type of event was so unique and unexplainable. What cataclysmic events would cause the rich to forsake their wealth and give it to slaves?
But there is yet another reference in the papyrus that addresses a second event unique to this time. As Israel left Egypt, the Bible says that God led them with a pillar of smoke by day and a pillar of fire by night (Exodus 13:21).
The Ipuwer papyrus talks of this incident but from a slightly different perspective.
“Behold, the fire has mounted on high. Its burning goes forth against the enemies of the land” (7:1)
Though they spun it as an attack on their enemies, it is very clear that a towering fire was associated with Israel’s departure.

The Text

taken from

Chapter 1

[. . .] The door [keepers] say: "Let us go and plunder." The confectioners [. . .]. The washerman refuses to carry his load [. . .] the bird [catchers] have drawn up in line of battle [. . . the inhabitants] of the Delta carry shields. The brewers/[. . .] sad. A man regards his son as his enemy. Confusion [. . .] another. Come and conquer; judge [. . .] what was ordained for you in the time of Horus, in the age [of the Ennead . . .]. The virtuous man goes in mourning because of what has happened in the land [. . .] goes [. . .] the tribes of the desert have become Egyptians everywhere.
Indeed, the face is pale;/[. . .] what the ancestors foretold has arrived at [fruition . . .] the land is full of confederates, and a man goes to plough with his shield.
Indeed, the meek say: ["He who is . . . of] face is as a well-born man."
Indeed, [the face] is pale; the bowman is ready, wrongdoing is everywhere, and there is no man of yesterday.1
Indeed, the plunderer [. . .] everywhere, and the servant takes what he finds.
Indeed, the Nile overflows, yet none plough for it. Everyone says: "We do not know what will happen throughout the land."
Indeed, the women are barren and none conceive. Khnum fashions (men) no more because of the condition of the land.

Chapter 2

Indeed, poor men have become owners of wealth, and he who could not make sandals for himself is now a possessor of riches.
Indeed, men's slaves, their hearts are sad, and magistrates do not fraternize with their people when they shout.
Indeed, [hearts] are violent, pestilence is throughout the land, blood is everywhere, death is not lacking, and the mummy-cloth speaks even before one comes near it.
Indeed, many dead are buried in the river; the stream is a sepulcher and the place of embalmment has become a stream.
Indeed, noblemen are in distress, while the poor man is full of joy. Every town says: "Let us suppress the powerful among us."
Indeed, men are like ibises.2 Squalor is throughout the land, and there are none indeed whose clothes are white in these times.
Indeed, the land turns around as does a potter's wheel; the robber is a possessor of riches and [the rich man is become] a plunderer.
Indeed, trusty servants are [. . .]; the poor man [complains]: "How terrible! What am I to do?"
Indeed, the river is blood, yet men drink of it. Men shrink from human beings and thirst after water.
Indeed, gates, columns and walls are burnt up, while the hall of the palace stands firm and endures.
Indeed, the ship of [the southerners] has broken up; towns are destroyed and Upper Egypt has become an empty waste.3
Indeed, crocodiles [are glutted] with the fish they have taken,4 for men go to them of their own accord; it is the destruction of the land. Men say: "Do not walk here; behold, it is a net." Behold, men tread [the water] like fishes, and the frightened man cannot distinguish it because of terror.5
Indeed, men are few, and he who places his brother in the ground is everywhere. When the wise man speaks, [he flees without delay].6
Indeed, the well-born man [. . .] through lack of recognition, and the child of his lady has become the son of his maidservant. [TOP]

Chapter 3

/Indeed, the desert is throughout the land, the nomes are laid waste, and barbarians from abroad have come to Egypt.
Indeed, men arrive [. . .] and indeed, there are no Egyptians anywhere.
Indeed, gold and lapis lazuli, silver and turquoise, carnelian and amethyst, Ibhet-stone and [. . .] are strung on the necks of maidservants. Good things are throughout the land, (yet) housewives say: "Oh that we had something to eat!"
Indeed, [. . .] noblewomen. Their bodies are in sad plight by reason of their rags, and their hearts sink when greeting [one another].
Indeed, /chests of ebony are broken up, and precious ssndm-wood is cleft asunder in beds [. . .].
Indeed, the builders [of pyramids have become] cultivators, and those who were in the sacred bark are now yoked [to it]. None shall indeed sail northward to Byblos today; what shall we do for cedar trees for our mummies, and with the produce of which priests are buried and with the oil of which [chiefs] are embalmed as far as Keftiu?7 They come no more; gold is lacking [. . .] and materials for every kind of craft have come to an end. The [. . .] of the palace is despoiled. How often do people of the oases come with their festival spices, mats, and skins, with fresh rdmt-plants, /grease of birds . . . ?
Indeed, Elephantine and Thinis [are in the series] of Upper Egypt, (but) without paying taxes owing to civil strife. Lacking are grain, charcoal, irtyw-fruit, m;'w-wood, nwt-wood, and brushwood. The work of craftsmen and [. . .] are the profit of the palace. To what purpose is a treasury without its revenues? Happy indeed is the heart of the king when truth comes to him! And every foreign land [comes]! That is our fate and that is our happiness! What can we do about it? All is ruin!
Indeed, laughter is perished and is [no longer] made; it is groaning that is throughout the land, mingled with complaints. [TOP]

Chapter 4

Indeed, every dead person is as a well-born man.8 Those who were / Egyptians [have become] foreigners and are thrust aside.
Indeed, hair [has fallen out] for everybody, and the man of rank can no longer be distinguished from him who is nobody.
Indeed, [. . .] because of noise; noise is not [. . .] in years of noise, and there is no end [of] noise.9
Indeed, great and small {say}: "I wish I might die." Little children say: "He should not have caused {me} to live."
Indeed, the children of princes are dashed against walls, and the children of the neck10 are laid out on the high ground.11
Indeed, those who were in the place of embalmment are laid out on the high ground, and the secrets of the embalmers are thrown down because of it.
Indeed, / that has perished which yesterday was seen, and the land is left over to its weakness like the cutting of flax.
Indeed, the Delta in its entirety will not be hidden, and Lower Egypt puts trust in trodden roads. What can one do? No [. . .] exist anywhere, and men say: "Perdition to the secret place!" Behold, it is in the hands of those who do not know it like those who know it. The desert dwellers are skilled in the crafts of the Delta.12
Indeed, citizens are put to the corn-rubbers, and those who used to don fine linen are beaten with . . . Those who used never to see the day have gone out unhindered; those who were on their husbands' beds, / let them lie on rafts. I say: "It is too heavy for me,"13 concerning rafts bearing myrrh. Load them with vessels filled with [. . . Let] them know the palanquin.14 As for the butler, he is ruined. There are no remedies for it; noblewomen suffer like maidservants, minstrels are at the looms within the weaving-rooms, and what they sing to the Songstree-goddess is mourning. Talkers [. . .] corn-rubbers.
Indeed, all female slaves are free with their tongues, and when their mistress speaks, it is irksome to the maidservants.
Indeed, trees are felled and branches are stripped off. [TOP]

Chapter 5

I have separated15 him and his household slaves, / and men will say when they hear it: "Cakes are lacking for most children; there is no food [. . .]. What is the taste of it like today?"
Indeed, magnates are hungry and perishing, followers are followed [. . .] because of complaints.
Indeed, the hot-tempered man says: "If I knew where God is, then I would serve Him."
Indeed, [Right] pervades the land in name, but what men do in trusting to it is Wrong.
Indeed, runners are fighting over the spoil [of ] / the robber, and all his property is carried off.
Indeed, all animals, their hearts weep; cattle moan because of the state of the land.
Indeed, the children of princes are dashed against walls, and the children of the neck are laid out on the high ground. Khnum groans because of his weariness.
Indeed, terror kills;16 the frightened man opposes what is done against your enemies. Moreover, the few are pleased, while the rest are . . . Is it by following the crocodile and cleaving it asunder? Is it by slaying the lion roasted on the fire? [Is it] by sprinkling for Ptah and taking [. . .]? Why do you give to him? There is no reaching him. It is misery which you give to him.
Indeed, slaves . . . / throughout the land, and the strong man sends to everyone; a man strikes his maternal brother. What is it that has been done? I speak to a ruined man.
Indeed, the ways are [. . .], the roads are watched; men sit in the bushes until the benighted traveler comes in order to plunder his burden, and what is upon him is taken away. He is belabored with blows of a stick and murdered.17
Indeed, that has perished which yesterday was seen, and the land is left over to its weakness like the cutting of flax, commoners coming and going in dissolution [. . .]. [TOP]

Chapter 6

Would that there were an end of men, without conception, / without birth! Then would the land be quiet from noise and tumult be no more.
Indeed, [men eat] herbage and wash {it} down with water; neither fruit nor herbage can be found {for} the birds, and [. . .] is taken away from the mouth of the pig. No face is bright which you have {. . .}18 for me through hunger.
Indeed, everywhere barley has perished and men are stripped of clothes, spice, and oil; everyone says: "There is none." The storehouse is empty and its keeper is stretched on the ground; a happy state of affairs! . . ./
Would that I had raised my voice at that moment, that it might have saved me from the pain in which I am.
Indeed, the private council-chamber, its writings are taken away and the mysteries which were {in it} are laid bare.
Indeed, magic spells are divulged; smw- and shnw-spells are frustrated because they are remembered by men.
Indeed, public offices are opened and their inventories are taken away; the serf has become an owner of serfs.
Indeed, [scribes] are killed and their writings are taken away. Woe is me because of the misery of this time!
Indeed, the writings of the scribes of the cadaster are destroyed, and the corn of Egypt is common property.
Indeed, the laws / of the council chamber are thrown out; indeed, men walk on them in public places, and poor men break them up in the streets.
Indeed, the poor man has attained to the state of the Nine Gods, and the erstwhile procedure of the House of the Thirty19 is divulged.
Indeed, the great council-chamber is a popular resort, and poor men come and go to the Great Mansions.20
Indeed, the children of magnates are ejected into the streets; the wise man agrees and the fool says "no," and it is pleasing in the sight of him who knows nothing about it.21
Indeed, those who were in the place of embalmment are laid out on the high ground, and the secrets of the embalmers are thrown down because of it. [TOP]

Chapter 7

/ Behold, the fire has gone up on high, and its burning goes forth against the enemies of the land.
Behold, things have been done which have not happened for a long time past; the king has been deposed by the rabble.
Behold, he who was buried as a falcon22 {is devoid} of biers, and what the pyramid concealed23 has become empty.
Behold, it has befallen that the land has been deprived of the kingship by a few lawless men.
Behold, men have fallen into rebellion against the Uraeus,24 the [. . .] of Re, even she who makes the Two Lands content.
Behold, the secret of the land whose limits were unknown is divulged, and the Residence is thrown down in a moment.
Behold, Egypt is fallen to / pouring of water, and he who poured water on the ground has carried off the strong man in misery.25
Behold, the Serpent26 is taken from its hole, and the secrets of the Kings of Upper and Lower Egypt are divulged.
Behold, the Residence is afraid because of want, and [men go about] unopposed to stir up strife.
Behold, the land has knotted itself up with confederacies, and the coward takes the brave man's property.
Behold, the Serpent [. . .] the dead: he who could not make a sarcophagus for himself is now the possessor of a tomb.
Behold, the possessors of tombs are ejected on to the high ground, while he who could not make a coffin for himself is now {the possessor} of a treasury.
Behold, this has happened {to} men; he who could not build a room for himself is now a possessor of walls.
Behold, the magistrates of the land are driven out throughout the land: {. . .} are driven out from the / palaces.
Behold, noble ladies are now on rafts, and magnates are in the labor establishment, while he who could not sleep even on walls is now the possessor of a bed.
Behold, the possessor of wealth now spends the night thirsty, while he who once begged his dregs for himself is now the possessor of overflowing bowls.
Behold, the possessors of robes are now in rags, while he who could not weave for himself is now a possessor of fine linen.
Behold, he who could not build a boat for himself is now the possessor of a fleet; their erstwhile owner looks at them, but they are not his.
Behold, he who had no shade is now the possessor of shade, while the erstwhile possessors of shade are now in the full blast of the storm.
Behold, he who was ignorant of the lyre is now the possessor of a harp, while he who never sang for himself now vaunts the Songstress-goddess.
Behold, those who possessed vessel-stands of copper {. . .} not one of the jars therof has been adorned. [TOP]

Chapter 8

Behold, he who slept / wifeless through want [finds] riches, while he whom he never saw stands making dole.
Behold, he who had no property is now a possessor of wealth, and the magnate praises him.
Behold, the poor of the land have become rich, and the {erstwhile owner} of property is one who has nothing.
Behold, serving-men have become masters of butlers, and he who was once a messenger now sends someone else.
Behold, he who had no loaf is now the owner of a barn, and his storehouse is provided with the goods of another.
Behold, he whose hair is fallen out and who had no oil has now become the possessors of jars of sweet myrrh.
/ Behold, she who had no box is now the owner of a coffer, and she who had to look at her face in the water is now the owner of a mirror.
Behold, {. . .}.
Behold, a man is happy eating his food. Consume your goods in gladness and unhindered, for it is good for a man to eat his food; God commands it for him whom He has favored {. . .}.27
{Behold, he who did not know} his god now offers to him with incense of another [who is] not known [to him].
[Behold,] great ladies, once possessors of riches, now give their children for beds.
Behold, a man [to whom is given] a noble lady as wife, her father protects him, and he who has not {. . .} killing him.
Behold, the children of magistrates are [ . . . the calves] / of cattle [are given over] to the plunderers.
Behold, priests transgress with the cattle of the poor27 [. . .].
Behold, he who could not slaughter for himself now slaughters bulls, and he who did not know how to carve now sees [. . .].
Behold, priests transgress with geese, which are given {to} the gods instead of oxen.
Behold, maidservants [. . .] offer ducks; noblewomen {. . .}.29
Behold, noblewomen flee; the overseers of [. . .] and their [children] are cast down through fear of death.
{Behold,} the chiefs of the land flee; there is no purpose for them because of want. The lord of [. . .]. [TOP]

Chapter 9

[Behold,] / those who once owned beds are now on the ground, while he who once slept in squalor now lays out a skin-mat for himself.
Behold, noblewomen go hungry, while the priests are sated with what has been prepared for them.
Behold, no offices are in their right place,30 like a herd running at random without a herdsman.
Behold, cattle stray and there is none to collect them, but everyone fetches for himself those that are branded with his name.
Behold, a man is slain beside his brother, who runs away and abandons him to save his own skin.
Behold, he who had no yoke of oxen is now the owner of a herd, and he who could find for himself no ploughman is now the owner of cattle.
Behold, he who had no grain is now the owner of granaries, / and he who had to fetch loan-corn for himself is now one who issues it.
Behold, he who had no dependents is now an owner of serfs, and he who was {a magnate} now performs his own errands.
Behold, the strong men of the land, the condition of the people is not reported {to them}. All is ruin!
Behold, no craftsmen work, for the enemies of the land have impoverished its craftsmen.
[Behold, he who once recorded] the harvest now knows nothing about it, while he who never ploughed [for himself is now the owner of corn; the reaping] takes place but is not reported. The scribe [sits in his office], but his hands [are idle] in it.
Destroyed is [. . .] in that time, and a man looks [on his friend as] an adversary. The infirm man brings coolness [to what is hot . . .] fear [. . . / . . .]. Poor men [. . . the land] is not bright because of it. [TOP]

Chapter 10

Destroyed is [. . .] their food is taken from them [. . . through] fear of his terror. The commoner begs [. . .] messenger, but not [. . .] time. He is captured laden with goods and [all his property] is taken away. [. . .] men pass by his door [. . .] the outside of the wall, a shed, and rooms containing falcons.31 It is the common man who will be vigilant, / the day having dawned on him without his dreading it. Men run because of {. . . for} the temple of the head, strained through a woven cloth within the house. What they make are tents, just like the desert folk.
Destroyed is the doing of that for which men are sent by retainers in the service of their masters; they have no readiness. Behold, they are five men, and they say: "Go on the road you know, for we have arrived."
Lower Egypt weeps; the king's storehouse is the common property of everyone, and the entire palace is without its revenues. To it belong emmer and barley, fowl and fish; to it belong white cloth and fine linen, copper and oil; / to it belong carpet and mat, [. . .] flowers and wheat-sheaf and all good revenues . . . If the . . .32 it in the palace were delayed, men would be devoid [of . . .].
Destroy the enemies of the august Residence, splendid of magistrates [. . .] in it like [. . .]; indeed, the Governor of the City goes unescorted.
Destroy [the enemies of the august Residence,] splendid [. . .].
[Destroy the enemies of] that erstwhile august Residence, manifold of laws [. . .].
[Destroy the enemies of] / that erstwhile august [Residence . . .].
Destroy the enemies of that erstwhile august Residence [. . .] none can stand [. . .].
Destroy the enemies of that erstwhile august Residence, manifold of offices; indeed [. . .].
Remember to immerse [. . .] him who is in pain when he is sick in his body; show respect [. . .] because of his god that he may guard the utterance [. . .] his children who are witnesses of the surging of the flood. [TOP]

Chapter 11

Remember to [. . . / . . .]. . . shrine, to fumigate with incense and to offer water in a jar in the early morning.33 Remember {to bring} fat r-geese, trp-geese, and ducks and to offer god's offerings to the gods.
Remember to chew natron34 and to prepare white bread; a man {should do it} on the day of wetting the head.
Remember to erect flagstaffs and to carve offering stones, the priest cleansing the chapels and the temple being plastered (white) like milk; to make pleasant the odor of the horizon and to provide bread-offerings.
Remember to observe regulations, to fix dates correctly,36 and to remove him who enters / on the priestly office in impurity of body, for that is doing it wrongfully, it is destruction of the heart37 [. . .] the day which precedes eternity, the months [. . .] years are known.
Remember to slaughter oxen [. . .].
Remember to go forth purged [. . .] who calls to you; to put r-geese on the fire [. . .] to open the jar [. . .] the shore of the waters [. . .] of women [. . .] clothing [. . . / . . .] to give praise . . . in order to appease you.38
[. . .] lack of people; come [. . .] Re who commands [. . .] worshipping him [. . .] West until [. . .] are diminished [. . .].
Behold, why does he seek to fashion {men . . .}? The frightened man is not distinguished from the violent one.

Chapter 12

He39 brings coolness upon heat; / men say: "He is the herdsman of mankind, and there is no evil in his heart." Though his herds are few, yet he spends a day to colloect them, their hearts being on fire. Would that he had perceived their nature in the first generation; then he would have imposed obstacles, he would have stretched out his arm against them, he would have destroyed their herds and their heritage. Men desire the giving of birth, but sadness supervenes, with needy people on all sides. So it is, and it will not pass away while the gods who are in the midst of it exist. Seed goes forth into mortal women, but none are found on the road.40 Combat has gone forth, / and he who should be a redresser of evils is one who commits them; neither do men act as pilot in their hour of duty. Where is he41 today? Is he asleep? Behold, his power is not seen.
If we had been fed, I would not have found you, I would not have been summoned in vain;42 "Aggression against it43 means pain of heart" is a saying on the lips of everyone. Today he who is afraid . . . a myriad of people; [. . .] did not see [. . .] against the enemies of [. . .] at his outer chamber; who enter the temple [. . .] weeping for him [. . .] that one who confounds what he has said . . . / The land has not fallen [. . .] the statues are burned and their tombs destroyed [. . .] he sees the day of [. . .]. He who could not make for himself {. . .} between sky and ground is afraid of everybody.
. . . if he does it . . . what you dislike taking. Authority, knowledge, and truth are with you, yet confusion is what you set throughout the land, also the noise of tumult. Behold, one deals harm to another, for men conform to what you have commanded. If three men travel on the road, they are found to be only two, for the many kill the few. [TOP]

Chapter 13

Does a herdsman desire death? Then may you command reply to be made,44 / because it means that one loves another detests; it means that their existences are few everywhere; it means that you have acted so as to bring those things to pass. You have told lies, and the land is a weed which destroys men, and none can count on life. All these years are strife, and a man is murdered on his housetop even though he was vigilant in his gate lodge. Is he brave and saves himself? It means he will live.
When men send a servant for humble folk, he goes on the road until he sees the flood; the road is washed out / and he stands worried. What is on him is taken away, he is belabored with blows of a stick and wrongfully slain. Oh that you could taste a little of the misery of it! Then you would say [. . .] from someone else as a wall, over and above [. . .] hot . . . years . . . [. . .].
[It is indeed good] when ships fare upstream [. . . / . . .] robbing them. It is indeed good [. . .].
[It is indeed] good when the net is drawn in and birds are tied up [. . .].
It is [indeed] good [. . .] dignities for them, and the roads are passable.
It is indeed good when the hands of men build pyramids, when ponds are dug and plantations of the trees of the gods are made.
It is indeed good when men are drunk; they drink myt and their hearts are happy. [TOP]

Chapter 14

It is indeed good when shouting is in men's mouths, when the magnates of districts stand looking on at the shouting / in their houses, clad in a cloak, cleansed in front and well-provided within.45
It is indeed good when beds are prepared and the headrests of magistrates are safely secured. Every man's need is satisfied with a couch in the shade, and a door is now shut on him who once slept in the bushes.
It is indeed good when fine linen is spread out on New Year's Day [. . .] on the bank; when fine linen is spread out and cloaks are on the ground. The overseer of [. . .] the trees, the poor [. . . / . . .] in their midst like Asiatics [. . .]. Men {. . .} the state therof; they have come to an end of themselves; none can be found to stand up and protect themselves [. . .]. Everyone fights for his sister and saves his own skin. Is it Nubians? Then will we guard ourselves; warriors are made many in order to ward off foreigners. Is it Libyans? Then we will turn away. The Medjay46 are pleased with Egypt. [TOP]

Chapter 15

How comes it that every man kills his brother? The troops / whom we marshaled for ourselves have turned into foreigners and have taken to ravaging. What has come to pass through it is informing the Asiatics of the state of the land; all the desert folk are possessed with the fear of it.47 What the plebs have tasted {. . .} without giving Egypt over {to} the sand. It is strong [. . .] speak about you after years [. . .] devastate itself, it is the threshing floor which nourishes their houses [. . .] to nourish his children [. . .] said by the troops [. . . / . . .] fish [. . .] gum, lotus leaves [. . .] excess of food. [TOP]

Chapter 16

What Ipuwer said when he addressed the Majesty of the Lord of All:48 [. . .] all herds. It means that ignorance of it is what is pleasing to the heart. You have done what was good in their hearts and you have nourished the people with it. They cover / their faces through fear of the morrow.
That is how a man grows old before he dies, while his son is a lad of understanding; he does not open [his] mouth to speak to you, but you seize him in the doom of death [. . .] weep [. . .] go [. . .] after you, that the land may be [. . .] on every side. [TOP]

Chapter 17

If men call to [. . .] weep [. . .] them, who break into the tombs and burn the statues [. . .] the corpses of the nobles [. . . / . . .] of directing work.
(The rest of the papyrus is lost.)

Friday, October 30, 2015

Pre-Marital Sex pt. 5

taken from:

Christianity and premarital sex
There is much debate amongst Christians as to whether or not sex between two people who have never been married to anyone constitutes a form of fornication.[19] Witte argues that the Bible itself is silent on the issue of consensual, premarital sex between an engaged couple.[20] One theologian whose opinion stands contrary to Witte's claim was the medieval English monastic, John Baconthorpe, who believed it can be argued from the Bible that sex before marriage is immoral.[21] A more contemporary theologian, the modern day English Anglican Lee Gatiss also argues that premarital sex is immoral based on scripture. He states that, from a Biblical perspective, "physical union should not take place outside of a "one flesh" (i.e. marriage) union... In [1 Corinthians] chapter 7 Paul addresses the situation of two unmarried Christians who are burning with passion (7:8-9) who should either exercise self-control or get married (cf. verses 36-38). The underlying assumptions are the same as those in Deuteronomy 22."[22]
Some of the debate arises from the question of which theological approach is being applied. A deontological view of sex interprets porneia, aselgeia and akatharsia in terms of whether the couple are married or non-married. What makes sex moral or immoral is the context of marriage. By contrast, a teleological view interprets porneia, aselgeia and akatharsia in terms of the quality of the relationship (how well it reflects God's glory and Christian notions of a committed, virtuous relationship.)[23]
The discussion turns on two Greek words—moicheia (μοιχεία, adultery) and porneia (el:πορνεία, from which the word pornography is derived). The first word is restricted to contexts involving sexual betrayal of a spouse; however, the second word is used as a generic term for illegitimate sexual activity. Elsewhere in First Corinthians, incest, homosexual intercourse (according to some interpretations)[24] and prostitution are all explicitly forbidden by name (however, the Septuagint uses "porneia" to refer to male temple prostitution). Paul is preaching about activities based on levitical sexual prohibitions in the context of achieving holiness. The theory suggests it is these behaviours, and only these, that are intended by Paul's prohibition in chapter seven.[25]
One major academic theological work that equates porneia with premarital sex is Kittel and Friedrich's Theological Dictionary of the New Testament from 1977. In defining porneia as fornication, it states that "The NT is characterized by an unconditional repudiation of all extra-marital and unnatural intercourse."[26] Likewise, Friberg's Analytical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament defines porneia as being "generally, every kind of extramarital, unlawful or unnatural sexual intercourse."[27]
Lee Gatiss also argues that "porneia" does encompass premarital sex. He states that the word "fornication" has gone out of fashion and is not in common use to describe non-marital sex. However, it is an excellent translation for porneia, which basically referred to any kind of sex outside of marriage... This has been contested... but the overwhelming weight of scholarship and all the available evidence from the ancient world points firmly in this direction. "Flee sexual immorality (porneia) and pursue self-control" (cf. 1 Thess 4:1-8) was the straightforward message to Christians in a sex-crazed world."[22]
A survey undertaken by the American Sociological Review between 2000 and 2008 covering 31 developing countries found that "94 percent of Jews... reported having premarital sex, compared to 79 percent of Christians, 65 percent of Buddhists, 43 percent of Muslims and 19 percent of Hindus."[28]

Jesus and the early church
Attitudes towards marriage and sexuality at the time of Jesus stemmed from a blend of Roman and Jewish ideas. For instance, during the lifetime of Jesus, there was a strong social disapproval amongst Romans of polygamy. This made its way into Judaism and early Christianity, despite the Old Testament portraying examples of this behaviour amongst patriarchs and kings.[29]
Jewish marriage in the time of Jesus was a two-stage process. First, there was a betrothal in which the man claimed the woman to be his only bride. Secondly, there was the marriage contract which specified what the bride and groom's families would give the couple and what the bride would obtain if she divorced. "At the time of Jesus, and in rural areas like Galilee, a young couple might well co-habit before the contract was signed "in order to get acquainted.""[29] Jesus did not condemn sex at the betrothal stage nor approve of it as there is no record of any statements of his about this in the Gospels.
Jesus' teaching on divorce raised "the status of the wife from disposable dependent of the man to part of his very flesh."[29]
After the crucifixion, the early Church's statements on marital affairs mainly concerned acceptable reasons for divorce and remarriage. Whilst Paul, in his epistles to early believers, emphasised that both celibacy and marriage were good forms of life, after his life the Church felt that celibacy was more virtuous and liberating. This focus came about because the early church was very ascetic, possibly due to the influence of Greek philosophical thought. The focus on celibacy meant that other issues relating to sexual morality for the non-celibate remained under-developed.[29]
Augustine of Hippo's views strongly influenced how later Christians thought about sex. In his later writings, he was "deeply suspicious of sexual passion" and this has influenced the outlook of all the major Christian denominations down to the present day.[30]
It was some time later, during the sixth century, that the Emperor Justinian formulated laws that were to become the basis of Western marriage law for the next millennia. Under his legislation, co-habiting couples were no longer recognised as married and their children were regarded as illegitimate, with the same status as the children of prostitutes. However, the status of illegitimate children could be updated if the parents later married.

Monday, October 5, 2015

Pre-Marital Sex pt. 4

Jewish Views on Premarital Sex

taken from article:

Judaism’s attitude toward premarital sex is intriguing. The Torah does not outlaw it–as it does many other types of sexual relationships–and the child of such a union is not considered a mamzer (illegitimate). Nonetheless, marital sex is considered ideal, and premarital sex is traditionally not approved of.
The negative attitude toward premarital sex, to a large degree, reflects the overwhelmingly positive attitude toward sex within marriage. Marriage is referred to as kiddushin, which comes from the Hebrew word for “holy.” In Judaism, holy things are things that are set apart and made special and unique.
When sex is reserved for marriage, it too is considered holy. Most Jewish authorities disapprove of premarital sex because it does not take place within the context of kiddushin.
What of a long-term committed sexual relationship in which two people–though not married–have designated each other as their exclusive partner? This question has been raised by some liberal Jewish thinkers; however, both the Conservative and Reform movement (officially) reject the possibility of attributing kedushah (holiness) to such a relationship.
As mentioned, the Torah does not directly prohibit premarital sex. Indeed, at times, rabbinic authorities  and traditional sources have been lenient in this area. In medieval Spain, Nahmanides permitted sex with an unmarried woman who was not involved with another man. Nonetheless, for traditional Jews, premarital sex is not without halakhic (legal) complication. The Torah prohibits sex between a man and a woman who is menstruating (known as a niddah). This prohibition is in place until the woman’s period is complete and she immerses in a mikveh or ritual bath. This restriction applies to both married and unmarried couples, though it is considered inappropriate for a non-married woman (except for a soon-to-be bride) to immerse in a mikveh. Thus sex between an unmarried man and woman can violate a Torah decree.
Interestingly, the Torah does sanction one type of non-marital sexual relationship: concubinage. A concubine or pilegesh is a woman who, though involved exclusively with one man, does not receive the legal benefits of marriage. In biblical times, concubines were kept in addition to a wife or wives. In recent centuries, Jewish authorities have, for the most part, dismissed the validity of concubinage. An interesting exception is the 18th century legal authority Jacob Emden, who suggested re-instituting the practice. Today, liberal authorities like Arthur Waskow are once again exploring the viability of this concept.
Other liberal authorities have pointed out the need to develop a new sexual ethic to address the reality of premarital sex. Waskow, a leader in the Jewish Renewal movement, suggests altering our expectation of marriage to “make it easy for sexually active people from puberty on to enter and leave marriages.” Even the Conservative and Reform movements, who still stress the ideal of marital sex, acknowledge that Judaism’s position on human sexuality is not consonant with the trends of contemporary life. Both denominations have suggested that premarital sexual relationships–where they exist–should be conducted according to the ethical principles that govern married sex: namely with the respect due to all humans as beings created in the image of God. In addition, Conservative rabbi Elliot Dorff has stressed the importance of modesty, fidelity, and health and safety in non-marital sex.